Original articles

Adherence to the 2021 dietary guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology on cardiovascular disease prevention in residents of the Pomeranian Voivodeship with increased cardiovascular risk

Jolanta A. Dardzińska, Sylwia Małgorzewicz, Natalia Szupryczyńska, Katarzyna Gładyś , Aleksandra Śliwińska, Małgorzata Kaczkan, Magdalena Pieszko, Anna Wojda, Edyta Wernio, Patrycja Gogga, Agata Janczy, Witold Rzyman
Published online: January 17, 2023


Introduction: Good eating habits can reduce cardiovascular risk.

Objectives: The aim of this work was to verify the compliance with the new European Society of Cardiology (ESC) dietary guidelines in people with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Patients and methods: The study included 1244 current or former smokers (636 men and 608 women) at a mean (SD) age of 61.6 (6.4) years who volunteered for the MOLTEST BIS lung cancer prevention program. During the program, 49% of the patients were diagnosed with one of the following: arterial hypertension (AH), diabetes mellitus (DM), or coronary artery disease (CAD). The patients with lung cancer were excluded from the study. The participants completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ‑6) and their food intake was assessed with a 24‑hour dietary recall method.

Results: Only 2% of the studied individuals declared consuming more than 2 servings of both fruits and vegetables every day, and only 3% of the respondents confirmed daily nut consumption. Most of them weighed too much, consumed too little fiber, and derived too much energy from total and saturated fats. The mean animal to plant protein ratio was higher than recommended, as was the omega‑6 to omega‑3 fatty acid ratio. Only 40% of the participants with AH, DM, or CAD had a daily cholesterol intake below 200 mg, and in only 12% of them less than 7% of total energy came from saturated fats.

Conclusions: The smokers with increased cardiovascular risk did not comply with the 2021 ESC dietary recommendations. The most common error was inadequate consumption of vegetables, fruits, and nuts.

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