Original articles

General population reference values for 3-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire in Poland

Dominik Golicki, Maciej Niewada
Published online: January 12, 2015

INTRODUCTION A Polish EQ-5D normative study published in 2010 was conducted in 2008 as a pilot study. The group of respondents was relatively small and had limited representativeness. 

OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to derive population norms for the 3-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire in Poland using a large, representative sample.

RESPONDENTS AND METHODS Stratified random sampling was used. A total of 3941 respondents (age, 18–87 years) completed the self-administered paper-based EQ-5D-3L questionnaire (3973 completed the visual analog scale, EQ VAS) and were included in this study. Utility index scores were derived using the Polish time trade-off value set.

RESULTS The study sample was representative of the general Polish population in terms of age, sex, geographical region, type and size of a given locality, level of education, and social and professional status. Mean EQ-5D-3L and visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) values decreased from 0.968 and 86.2 (age group, 18–24 years) to 0.730 and 54.0 (age group, ≥75 years), respectively. The most frequently reported complaints were pain/discomfort (45.8%) followed by anxiety/depression (33.3%), while the least commonly reported problem was self-care (9.4%).

CONCLUSIONS Polish population norms developed for the EQ-5D-3L index, descriptive part of the EQ-5D-3L, and EQ VAS can be used as reference values. The availability of such normative data should encourage the use of EQ-5D-3L in health-related quality-of-life studies in Poland.

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